All of our Questions are BRAND NEW to match the LATEST 2024 Test Material

Fundamental Principles

Britain has a long history of respecting individual rights and ensuring essential freedoms. These rights have been established through historical documents like Magna Carta, the Habeas Corpus Act, and the Bill of Rights of 1689, and have evolved over time. British diplomats and lawyers played a crucial role in drafting the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and the UK was among the first countries to sign the Convention in 1950.
The European Convention of Human Rights encompasses several important principles, including:

  • The right to life
  • The prohibition of torture
  • The prohibition of slavery and forced labor
  • The right to liberty and security
  • The right to a fair trial
  • Freedom of thought, conscience, and religion
  • Freedom of expression (speech)
The Human Rights Act 1998 brought the European Convention of Human Rights into UK law. As a result, the government, public bodies, and the courts are obligated to uphold the principles outlined in the Convention.

Equal opportunities

In the UK, there are laws in place to ensure that people are not treated unfairly in any aspect of their lives or work due to factors such as age, disability, sex, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sexuality, or marital status. If you encounter discrimination and need assistance, you can seek information and support from organisations such as Citizens Advice or the following:

Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is a serious crime in the UK. It is illegal for anyone to be violent towards their partner, regardless of their gender or marital status. Forcing a woman to have sex, including within a marriage, is considered rape and is punishable by law.
If you or someone you know is experiencing domestic violence, it is crucial to seek help as soon as possible. A solicitor or the Citizens Advice Bureau can provide guidance on available options. Refuges or shelters, known as safe places, are available in some areas. The National Domestic Violence Freephone Helpline operates 24/7 and can be reached at 0808 2000 247. They have a voicemail service for leaving messages to be called back. More information is available on their website: You can also visit the Women's Aid website at In emergencies, always call the police, as they can help you find a safe place to stay.

Female Genital Mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as cutting or female circumcision, is illegal in the UK. It is a criminal offence to practice FGM or to take a girl or woman abroad for the purpose of FGM.

Forced Marriage

In the UK, a marriage should only occur with the full and free consent of both individuals involved. Arranged marriages, where both parties give their consent, are acceptable. However, forced marriage, where one or both parties are unable or unwilling to give their consent, is a criminal offence.
To protect individuals from forced marriage, Forced Marriage Protection Orders were introduced in 2008 in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland under the Forced Marriage (Civil Protection) Act 2007. Similar Protection Orders were introduced in Scotland in November 2011. These court orders can be obtained to safeguard individuals from being forced into a marriage or to protect those already in a forced marriage. Breaching a Protection Order can result in imprisonment of up to two years for contempt of court.
A potential victim or someone acting on their behalf can apply for a Forced Marriage Protection Order to seek legal protection.

Income Tax

In the UK, individuals are required to pay tax on their income, which includes wages from employment, self-employment profits, taxable benefits, pensions, and income from property, savings, and dividends.
Income tax is used to fund government services such as infrastructure, education, police, and the armed forces.
For most people who are employed, income tax is automatically deducted from their wages through the Pay As You Earn (PAYE) system. The employer deducts the tax and pays it directly to HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC), the government department responsible for tax collection. If you are self-employed, you are responsible for paying your own tax through a system called 'self-assessment,' which involves completing a tax return. Some individuals may also need to complete a tax return even if they are not self-employed. If HMRC sends you a tax return, it is important to complete and return the form as soon as you have all the necessary information.
You can find more information about income tax at For assistance and guidance regarding taxes and completing tax forms, you can contact the HMRC self-assessment helpline at 0300 200 3310 or visit the HMRC website at

National Insurance

National Insurance Contributions (NICs) are mandatory payments that almost everyone in the UK who is in paid work, including self-employed individuals, must make. The funds collected from NICs are used to finance state benefits and services such as the state retirement pension and the National Health Service (NHS).
Employees have their National Insurance Contributions deducted from their pay by their employer, while self-employed individuals are responsible for making their own contributions.
It is important to note that individuals who do not pay sufficient National Insurance Contributions may not be eligible to receive certain contributory benefits such as Jobseeker's Allowance or a full state retirement pension. Additionally, some workers, such as part-time workers, may not qualify for statutory payments like maternity pay if their earnings are below a certain threshold.
For more information and guidance on National Insurance Contributions, you can visit

Getting a National Insurance Number

A National Insurance number is a unique personal account number that ensures your National Insurance Contributions and tax payments are properly recorded. In the UK, all young people receive a National Insurance number shortly before their 16th birthday.
Non-UK nationals who are living in the UK and seeking work, starting work, or setting up as self-employed will also need a National Insurance number. However, it is possible to start working without one. If you have permission to work in the UK, you will need to contact the National Insurance number application line. Once you've applied, you will receive a letter from the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) instructing you to attend a National Insurance number interview at a Jobcentre Plus office. The letter will provide details of the required documents to bring along to prove your identity.
For more information on how to apply for a National Insurance number, you can visit

Driving in the UK

In the UK, the minimum age to drive a car or motorcycle is 17, and you must hold a valid driving licence to drive on public roads. To obtain a UK driving licence, you need to pass a driving test that assesses both your theoretical knowledge and practical driving skills. For riding a moped, the minimum age requirement is 16, and there are additional age restrictions and special tests for driving larger vehicles. Drivers can use their driving licence until they reach the age of 70. After that, the licence is valid for three years at a time and needs to be renewed.
In Northern Ireland, newly qualified drivers must display an 'R' plate (for restricted driver) for one year after passing their driving test. If you have a driving licence from another country, you can use it in the UK for up to 12 months. After that period, you must obtain a UK full driving licence. To check if you can drive in the UK with a non-GB licence, you can visit
If you are a resident in the UK, your car or motorcycle must be registered with the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA). You are also required to pay an annual vehicle tax, which is not transferable when the vehicle changes ownership. If your vehicle is not in use and parked off the road, you need to inform the DVLA by making a Statutory Off Road Notification (SORN). SORN cannot be transferred to a new owner when the vehicle is sold or given away. Additionally, valid motor insurance is mandatory, and driving without insurance is a serious criminal offence. Vehicles that are over three years old must undergo an annual Ministry of Transport (MOT) test. It is an offence to not have a valid MOT certificate for a vehicle over three years old. For more information about vehicle tax and MOT requirements, you can visit

Make Sure You Understand

  • The fundamental principle of UK law: The main principle of UK law is to respect everyone's rights and ensure important freedoms.
  • That domestic violence, FGM, and forced marriage are illegal in the UK: In the UK, it is against the law to engage in domestic violence, perform female genital mutilation (FGM), or force someone into a marriage.
  • The system of income tax and National Insurance: Income tax is the money people have to pay on their earnings, including wages, self-employment profits, pensions, and income from property and savings. National Insurance Contributions are also required to fund state benefits and services.
  • The requirements for driving a car: To drive a car in the UK, you must be at least 17 years old, have a valid driving licence, and fulfill certain requirements such as vehicle registration, tax payment, insurance, and passing the MOT test.